Wisteria Gardens

Wisteria Gardens is undoubtedly the best place on earth, at least for 2 months out of the twelve.  It shows that the regenerative power of spring is real, in that regard it shows exactly what Mother Nature is capable of.  It truly is the garden of paradise.

The rest of the year it is a place that is anything but spiritually uplifting.  It is a part of Cumberland Hospital, even though plenty of supposedly sane people tramp through there every spring to the Flower Festival.  That’s why my smartarse nickname for the place is Hysteria Gardens.

So, it’s a horrible place most of the time, filled with confined souls: the ghosts of the Female Factory convicts still shackled by their leg-irons, the modern inmates shackled by their diagnoses.  Really, I have more of a problem with their treatment, than with them.  My mother used to work for the mental health service; after hours, she had to put up with me on my soapbox, telling her, no you’re not really “helping” these people, you’re just putting a label on them and drugging them.

Another reason I find Parramatta depressing these days, is because of all the construction work there.  Make that destruction – of so many places that were once landmarks in my life.  That makes you feel like you are losing a part of yourself, smashed by the wrecking balls and huge machinery.

I’ll retire to Cumberland!  No, I’m being as sardonic as old Scrooge was there.

One better remedy is this: to go for a walk.  Particularly if you walk to the north part of Parramatta, where all the old Colonial buildings still stand, which gives off a lovely feeling.  They were here long before I was born, here’s hoping they will still be here long after me.

Fuck, I mean forget, progress!  I think I would like to live in a wattle and daub hut with a large Colonial verandah, wearing a long dress.  Just as long as I could have the mod cons: a fridge, electric stove, flushing toilet, TV, computer and the internet.  I’m not much of a pioneer, granted.

Perhaps the best part of Parramatta Park is the wide-open paddock, with the gums in the background.  Just as it would have been from time immemorial, when this was the Burramattigal tribe’s space.

Then there is the Colonial aspect, that seems to overshadow everything to do with Parramatta Park, from the time you walk under the old Gatekeeper’s Cottage.  A guide took my friend and I through here when we were kids; I was amazed by the old-fashioned stove, baking in summer, and parlour furniture.  Keep walking past the memorial to Lady Fitzroy and her carriage accident, till you climb the hill to what was Governor Brisbane’s bathhouse, now just an ornate gazebo.  In 1823 it must have been a wonder of modern engineering, piping the water up from the river.

As I approached the Old Government House, with its grapevine covered fence, I saw a retro-style carriage.  How historic, like the steam train that used to run through this park.  For a moment, I wondered if they were now offering horse-drawn tours – then I realised.  While chatting to the driver, I asked him if there was a wedding on in Lachlan’s Restaurant?  He confirmed to me that there was.  It would be a beautiful antique backdrop for their special day, an historic occasion.

I walked on, down the track until I came to the old Colonial cottages, one with that classic wide verandah.  The gardens around are well-maintained.  I saw a man in the other one, whose verandah is enclosed by windows.

“You don’t live here?!”

He told me that, no, he was one of the caretakers.  I would be able tour the places if I wanted to arrange it with the Park office.  I joked with him about modern people being stuck without their mod cons, so different to their ancestors.


Finally, I arrived at the famous Wisteria Gardens, following the stone lined path into the gates.  Spring had definitely returned here.  The eponymous vines were growing over the old rusty Colonial fence, its arrow points impaling the sky.  It was now a riot of purple.

The vernal air was filled with its lovely fragrance.

However at this time of year, the highlight is the peach blossoms, the most spectacular part of this old orchard.  They were a rainbow of colours, sometimes even on the same tree.  There were the white ones, pink ones and those in fancier hues.

They led into the garden in long avenues, lined by their astonishing beauty.  On this beautiful spring day, people came to admire them, some bringing their children.  All of them snapped photos on their smartphones.

As you continued walking, down beside the creek, there were the bluebells, poppies and daisies in the garden beds.  Ornate white roses climbed over some fences, wisterias grew over others.  In purple and white, they decorated the many trellises.  The beauty of the peaches was accompanied by blooming crab-apples.

I spent hours here, in this enchanted place of magic.  Not forever, but for two months only, this is an enchanted fairyland.  I was mostly rapturous, but a little sad, knowing it must end soon and my snapped pictures the only thing left.

All in all, there was no better place to be, on a warm spring afternoon.


As I was leaving, the wedding party turned up.  The bridesmaids wore deep purple dresses; the groomsmen were in matching bowties.  The bride’s dress was nice enough, for a bridal magazine. I would have gone a lot more retro in style; Regency perhaps, or the more ornate Victorian wider skirt.  It would be in keeping with the Old Government House wedding and the carriage.

“Congratulations!” I told them.

Now they were going to pose with the magnificent flowers as a backdrop.  In Wisteria Gardens with the air fragrant with the eponymous vines.  I couldn’t think of a better backdrop for the happy couple, the splendid peach blossoms framing the photographs of their big day.

Yet it made me sad in a way.  That they would have to have John Howard and his hateful words there at their ceremony.  Given the choice, I’m sure they wouldn’t have invited that along, for their Big Day.

HOW LONG?  How many more times must the peach trees flower, while it must be like this?  One day some other people’s dreams will be able come true.  On that day, it will be a nice day for a white wedding – and that’s all I will say about those men’s shirts.

Having said that, let me say that I wish the bride and groom nothing except the very best.  May their marriage, like the blooming peach trees, bear much fruit.  May their love return every year, blooming as the peach blossoms.  A perfect backdrop.

When the spring returns, I shall return to this enchanted place.



Today, 1 May 2017, marks twenty years since homosexual acts were finally decriminalised in Tasmania, through a bill finally passed through their upper house, the notoriously reactionary Legislative Council. During the Nineties, gay activists fought an epic battle for nearly a decade, in order to bring an end to these laws. Sometimes fighting against seemingly impossible odds, they never gave up.
These were the laws, in the Tasmanian Criminal Code, 1924:
122. Any person who –
has sexual intercourse with any person against the order of nature;
has sexual intercourse with an animal;
consents to a male person having sexual intercourse with him or her against the order of nature,
is guilty of a crime
Charge: Unnatural sexual intercourse.
123. Any male person who, whether in public or in private, commits any indecent assault upon, or other at of gross indecency with, another male person, or procures another male person to commit any act of gross indecency with himself or any other male person, is guilty of a crime.
Charge: Indecent practice between male persons.
(Morris 1995, pp6-7)


Today, 1 May 2017, marks twenty years since homosexual acts were finally decriminalised in Tasmania, through a bill finally passed through their upper house, the notoriously reactionary Legislative Council. During the Nineties, gay activists fought an epic battle for nearly a decade, in order to bring an end to these laws. Sometimes fighting against seemingly impossible odds, they never gave up.
These were the laws, in the Tasmanian Criminal Code, 1924:

122. Any person who –
(a)   has sexual intercourse with any person against the order of nature;
(b)   has sexual intercourse with an animal;
(c)   consents to a male person having sexual intercourse with him or her against the     order of nature,
is guilty of a crime
Charge: Unnatural sexual intercourse.

123. Any male person who, whether in public or in private, commits any indecent assault upon, or other at of gross indecency with, another male person, or procures another male person to commit any act of gross indecency with himself or any other male person, is guilty of a crime.
Charge: Indecent practice between male persons.
(Morris 1995, pp6-7)

‘This law had destroyed men’s lives’ {Brown 2014}. He and other gay men campaigned against the laws, with a courage and strength that defies all negative stereotypes about them. However, they were not the only ones who took this side in the argument. There were those with a commitment to human rights, for whatever reason, and those who simply regarded the laws as an anachronism by the end of last century. This was particularly true if they lived in other states, or countries, where their sodomy laws had been abolished.

There was another side to the debate, who presented their arguments vociferously. These were arguments such as that of Chris Miles, a politician and Baptist lay preacher, who claimed: ‘homosexuality was not acceptable in any society, let alone a civilised one’ {Morris 1995, p35}. He clearly was not a scholar in Classic Greek History. Then there was the gem from Jack Breheny, the Ulverstone councilor, whose comparison hardly flattered either, with ‘representatives of the gay community are no better than Saddam Hussein’ {Sainty 2016}.
Then there was George Brookes, a leading campaigner to retain Sections 122 & 123, and a member of the Legislative Council, whose views were not atypical. For a law that already carried 21 years’ prison time, about 7 years longer than it ever had in any other state, he stated: ‘I believe we ought to be tightening up the laws, making them a little more drastic . . . and maybe we would influence a few more of them to take the plane north’ {quoted in Milliken 1992}.

The gay activists would counter this with the memorable slogan: ‘We’re here, we’re queer. . .and we’re not going to the mainland’ {Croome @ Fidler 2011}.








Spring Reminiscing

“Spring shows what God can do with a drab and dirty world.”
– Virgil A Kraft

Now that’s something to remember, now that spring is here again. The cherry, plum and peach trees are in flower, with the vines not far behind, the air filled with the sweetness of wisteria and jasmine. The brunsfelsia trees are also a multi-coloured riot.

The rains are over, for now. The days are beginning to warm up and it can only get better. When the wind blows, it is no longer the bitter cold of winter, but carries a promise on the air. The promise is that it can and will get better.

Fresh green, for the leaves. Gold for sunshine. Blue for the beautiful warm sky.

What colours are there for me? Grey for my misery, brown for the dirtiness of life in the city, and black for the hearts of some.

The horrible people who tried to take advantage of me, the arrogance of others who can’t wait to look down their nose at you, and the treachery of those who enjoy kicking anyone who’s down.

To hell with them all!!!

Spring is here. By now I know that it isn’t only the plants that can regenerate. It isn’t only the birds that can sing their happiness.

Bring on the sunshine.

Eine Kleine Nachtmusik

It was late at night, on another night in another big city. On a weeknight like this, all the respectable working people were in their beds. Only insomniacs, and perhaps ghosts, walk at this hour.

It was so quiet here! About as quiet as it gets in the heart of the city. Despite all the cars flowing down this busy road, I felt all alone in the world.

There was action around for those who wanted it. In the pubs a few blocks away, everything was bright and gay. I could have joined in the fraternity there.

However I kept walking in the opposite direction, enjoying a bit of quiet.
Crossing the busy street, I came to a corner, where the duilding had stairs leading up to a type of verandah or patio, which looked like a stage. Inside, the impressive foyer led to a wide staircase. It was a grand entrance to a grand old edifice, which must have been really something back in the day.

Nowadays, it was a place where homeless people often dropped their swags and slept.

Tonight, someone had put an old piano on this impromptu stage. I wonder who it was organised that? I guess I should tell them that all the world is one. Sitting there was Jack, a man who I knew around the traps.

I knew that he was not the full quid, a few snags short of a barbie, or had kangaroos loose in the top paddock – there are so many expressions for it. Whenever he wasn’t abusive, however, I didn’t disparage him for this.

My auntie had Down’s Syndrome after all, the whole family could take off her rather cracked voice. Her two big interests in life were knitting, which she was pretty ordinary at, and the piano, her playing was quite extraordinary.

Jack was similarly talented in certain ways: he played guitar, had once done a portrait of a veiled woman, she looked like a nun. On a bad day, all I would hear from him was “smelly arse” and the F word.

Tonight he was in a good mood, offering me a cigarette. I climbed the stairs and had a look around. Noticing the piano, I commented about how it made the place look like a stage.

He asked me if I could play? So I sat down and had a go, the only thing I could remember was Bach’s Minuet in G. All those years of piano lessons, all that practicing my mother nagged me about, just for this.

Jack told me it was good, but it was so much better when he took over. He played one of Beethoven’s symphonies, the notes flowing like water.
This was much appreciated by his audience of one, the music flowing over me like a mighty river. I sat on the stairs, my two hands to only ones clapping at his playing.

He then switched to Mozart. I may have been the only one sitting there, but I was not the only audience that he had. I noticed people sitting at the lights in their cars, by their reactions it was obvious they also appreciated his playing, as the music flowed over them.

You could hear the same music at the Opera House, or down at Symphony in The Domain. That would be one thing. It was quite another to hear such talent from such an unlikely person, in such an unlikely place. It was like splashing around in some dirty river, then coming up with pure gold.

I feel privileged that I was there to witness it on that night, to hear that music.

The Anniversaries – Resources

The Anniversaries.



ABC (5/2/2014) Same-sex marriage: Scotland becomes 17th country to approve laws. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-02-05/scotland-becomes-17th-country-to-approve-same-sex-marriages/5239268
Austalian Marriage Equality (2014) Marriage equality around the world. Retrieved from: http://www.australianmarriageequality.org/overseas-same-sex-marriages/
BBC (2013) Gay marriage around the world. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-21321731
Botelho, Greg (2014) State-by-state: A frenzied few months on the same-sex marriage front. Cable News Network. Retrieved from: http://edition.cnn.com/2014/05/21/justice/same-sex-marriage-state-breakdown/index.html
Civil Partnership Act 2004. The National Archives. Retrieved from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2004/33
CNN (2014) Same-sex marriage in the United States. Cable News Network. Retrieved from: http://edition.cnn.com/interactive/us/map-same-sex-marriage/
CNN Library (2014) Same-Sex Marriage Fast Facts. Cable News Network. Retrieved from: http://edition.cnn.com/2013/05/28/us/same-sex-marriage-fast-facts/
Euronews (2013) Reflecting on 12 Years of Gay Marriage in the Netherlands. Retrieved from: http://www.euronews.com/2013/04/01/reflecting-on-12-years-of-gay-marriage-in-the-netherlands/
Fifis, Fran & Arce, Rose (18/5/2004) Same-sex couples exchange vows in Massachusetts. Cable News Network. Retrieved from: http://edition.cnn.com/2004/LAW/05/17/mass.samesex.marriage/index.html
Frank, Nathaniel (2013) Scalia the Mullah. The Slate Group. Retrieved from:
Freedom to Marry (2014) History and Timeline of the Freedom to Marry in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.freedomtomarry.org/pages/history-and-timeline-of-marriage
Freedom to Marry (2014) The Freedom to Marry Internationally. Retrieved from: http://www.freedomtomarry.org/landscape/entry/c/international
GLAD (2014) Goodridge et al. v. Dept. Public Health. Gay & Lesbian Advocates & Defenders. Retrieved from: http://www.glad.org/work/cases/goodridge-et-al-v-dept-public-health/
GLAD (2014) Goodridge v. Department of Public Health Background Information. Gay & Lesbian Advocates & Defenders. Retrieved from: http://www.glad.org/work/cases/goodridge-faq/
Kirk, Chris (2014) Your Guide to the Gay Marriage Fight. The Slate Group. Retrieved from: http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2014/05/gay_marriage_map_where_is_same_sex_marriage_legal.html
Masci, David & Sciupac, Elizabeth & Lipka, Michael (2013) Gay Marriage Around the World. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from: http://www.pewforum.org/2013/12/19/gay-marriage-around-the-world-2013/
Masci, Sciupac and Lipka (2014) Gay Marriage Around the World. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from: http://www.pewforum.org/2013/12/19/gay-marriage-around-the-world-2013/
McBride, Alex (2006) Lawrence v. Texas (2003). THE SUPREME COURT. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/future/landmark_lawrence.html
Miranda, Dr Roberto & Bradley, Robert & Prunier, Chanel (2005-07) About Us. VoteOnMarriage.org. Retrieved from: http://voteonmarriage.org/
Oyez Scholars (2011) LAWRENCE AND GARNER v. TEXAS. IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. Retrieved from: http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2002/2002_02_102
Phillips, Frank (14/6/2007) Tight vote looms on same-sex marriage. The Boston Globe Newspaper Company. Retrieved from: http://www.boston.com/news/specials/gay_marriage/articles/2007/06/14/tight_vote_looms_on_same_sex_marriage/
ProCon (2014) 35 States with Legal Gay Marriage and 15 States with Same-Sex Marriage Bans. ProCon.org. Retrieved from: http://gaymarriage.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=004857
Ring, Dan (17/5/2006) 8,100 gay, lesbian couples marry after 2004 decision. The Republican. Retrieved from: http://www.masslive.com/metrowest/republican/index.ssf?/base/news-0/114787085559880.xml
RNW (2011) Ten years of same-sex marriage: a mixed blessing. Radio Nederland Wereldomroep. Retrieved from: http://www.rnw.nl/english/article/ten-years-same-sex-marriage-a-mixed-blessing
SBS (2014) At-a-glance: Same-sex marriage around the world. Retrieved from: http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2014/10/07/glance-same-sex-marriage-around-world
Solomon, Todd (2009) Same-Sex Marriage, Civil Unions, and Domestic Partnerships: Recent Developments and the Impact on Employee Benefit Plans. Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved from: http://www.shrm.org/Conferences/annual/Documents/confsessions/09Ann_Solomon.pdf
The Associated Press (1/4/2001) Gay Marriage Goes Dutch. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/gay-marriage-goes-dutch/
This Day in History (17/5/2014) First legal same-sex marriage performed in Massachusetts. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-legal-same-sex-marriage-performed-in-massachusetts
Thomson Reuters (2014) LAWRENCE et al. v. TEXAS. FindLaw for Legal Professionals. Retrieved from: http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=000&invol=02-102
Wikipedia (2014) Boston marriage. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston_marriage
Wikipedia (2014) Civil Partnership Act 2004. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_Partnership_Act_2004
Wikipedia (2014) Lawrence v. Texas. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawrence_v._Texas
Wikipedia (2014) Same-sex marriage in Massachusetts. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same-sex_marriage_in_Massachusetts
Wikipedia (2014) Same-sex marriage in the United States. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same-sex_marriage_in_the_United_States
Wikipedia (2014) VoteOnMarriage.org. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VoteOnMarriage.org
Witkowski, D’ann (24/11/2005) Creep of the Week: VoteOnMarriage.org. Between the Lines. Retrieved from: http://www.pridesource.com/article.html?article=16635


AAP (22/10/2013) Feds poised to challenge gay marriage laws. The Australian. Retrieved from: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/latest-news/act-prepares-to-debate-gay-marriage-bill/story-fn3dxiwe-1226744206090?nk=bf6a3449b5a078107a4a58e38deff6fd
AAP (27/5/2004) PM targets gays in marriage law. Fairfax Media. Retrieved from: http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/05/27/1085461876842.html
AAP (May 27/5/2004) Howard to ban gay marriages. The Age Company Ltd. Retrieved from: http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/05/27/1085461875956.html
ABC (29/7/09) Rudd firm on gay marriage stance. ABC News. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2009-07-29/rudd-firm-on-gay-marriage-stance/1370872
ABC News (//2014) Senator David Leyonhjelm to introduce same-sex marriage legislation in private members bill. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-11-26/new-same-sex-marriage-legislation-proposed-for-parliament/5918044
Akersten, Matt (2014) Marking 1 year since Canberra’s ‘5 Days of Equality. Diversity ACT Community Services. Retrieved from: http://www.diversityact.org.au/hub1/news/localnational/marking-1-year-canberras-5-days-equality
AMF (13/8/2014) On the 10th Anniversary of the Marriage Amendment Act 2004. Australian Marriage Forum. Retrieved from: http://australianmarriage.org/archives/on-the-10th-anniversary-of-the-marriage-amendment-act-2004
Australian Conservative (27/8/09) The push for gay marriage: John Howard contrasts Canada with Australia. Retrieved from: http://australianconservative.com/2009/08/the-bill-of-rights-debate-john-howard-compares-canadian-experience-with-australias/
Australian Human Rights Commission (2004) SUBMISSION TO THE SENATE LEGAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL LEGISLATION COMMITTEE ON THE PROVISIONS OF THE MARRIAGE LEGISLATION AMENDMENT BILL 2004. Retrieved from: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/marriage-legislation-amendment-bill-2004
Busby, Cec (23/10/2014) NSW expunges historic gay sex convictions. GNN. Retrieved from: http://gaynewsnetwork.com.au/news/national/nsw-expunges-historic-gay-sex-convictions-15464.html
Byrne, Elizabeth (13/12/13) High Court throws out ACT’s same-sex marriage laws. ABC Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-12-12/high-court-decision-on-act-same-sex-marriage-laws/5152168
Commonwealth Consolidated Acts (2014) COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA CONSTITUTION ACT – SECT 51. Retrieved from: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/coaca430/s51.html
Commonwealth of Australia (2004) MARRIAGE AMENDMENT BILL 2004. THE PARLIAMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA. Retrieved from: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/bill_em/mab2004175/memo1.html
Commonwealth of Australia (2004) Marriage Amendment Bill 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Bills_Legislation/bd/bd0405/05bd005
Commonwealth of Australia (2012) Same-sex marriage. Parliament of Australia. Retrieved from: http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/BriefingBook44p/Marriage
Coorey, Phillip (30/7/09) Rudd presses Labor not to bless gay marriages. Fairfax Media. Retrieved from: http://www.smh.com.au/national/rudd-presses-labor-not-to-bless-gay-marriages-20090729-e1m5.html
Copland, Simon (1/10/2013) Comment: The logic of Gillard’s opposition to same-sex marriage. SBS. Retrieved from: http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2013/10/01/comment-logic-gillards-opposition-same-sex-marriage
Courtney, Shae (2013) Marriage Equality in Australia (and the World). Right Now Inc. Retrieved from: http://rightnow.org.au/writing-cat/article/marriage-equality-in-australia-and-the-world/
Cox, Lisa & Jean, Peter (16/9/2013) Territory to legalise same-sex marriage. Fairfax Media. Retrieved from: http://www.canberratimes.com.au/act-news/territory-to-legalise-samesex-marriage-20130915-2tt9o.html
Cox, Lisa (15/7/2014) Poll shows growing support for same-sex marriage. Fairfax Media. Retrieved from: http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/poll-shows-growing-support-for-samesex-marriage-20140714-3bxaj.html
Crime: HSC Legal Studies (2014) Provocation as a partial defence to murder. State Library of NSW. Retrieved from: http://guides.sl.nsw.gov.au/content.php?pid=242813&sid=3924375
Croome, Rodney (2011) A history of marriage in Australia. The Drum. ABC. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-07-01/croomemarriage/2778326
Croome, Rodney (2014) Media Release: Advocates Welcome Gillard’s Declaration That Marriage Equality Is Inevitable. Australian Marriage Equality. Retrieved from:

Cullen, Simon (19/9/12) Lower House votes down same-sex marriage bill. ABC News. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-09-19/same-sex-marriage-bill-voted-down/4270016
Cullen, Simon (20/9/12) Australian Senate votes down same-sex marriage bill. ABC News. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-09-20/an-senate-votes-down-second-bill/4272428
Curtis, Katina (22/10/2013) Feds poised to challenge gay marriage laws. AAP. The Australian. Retrieved from: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/latest-news/act-prepares-to-debate-gay-marriage-bill/story-fn3dxiwe-1226744206090?nk=bf6a3449b5a078107a4a58e38deff6fd
Dunkin, Alex (2012) Eight Years of Marriage Discrimination. Gay News Network. Retrieved from: http://gaynewsnetwork.com.au/eight-years-of-marriage-discrimination-8137.html
Editorial (23/10/2013) ACT crosses the rainbow bridge. The Age. Fairfax Media. Retrieved from: http://www.theage.com.au/comment/the-age-editorial/act-crosses-the-rainbow-bridge-20131022-2vz80.html
Fitz-Gibbon, Kate (2014) Kate Fitz-Gibbon responds to NSW provocation law reform. Criminology @ Deakin: Crime, Surveillance, Security and Justice. Retrieved from: https://blogs.deakin.edu.au/criminology/kate-fitz-gibbon-responds-to-nsw-provocation-law-reform/
Fitz-Gibbon, Kate (2014) The injustice of the provocation defence in NSW continues. Criminology @ Deakin: Crime, Surveillance, Security and Justice. Retrieved from: https://blogs.deakin.edu.au/criminology/the-injustice-of-the-provocation-defence-in-nsw-continues/
Foschia, Liz (5/3/2014) NSW legislation will limit ‘defence of provocation’ for murder charges. ABC. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-03-05/nsw-legislation-to-limit-27defence-of-provocation27-for-murde/5300490
Gerber, Dr Paula (2012) Wiping the slate clean: historic convictions for gay sex must be expunged. The Conversation. Retrieved from: http://theconversation.com/wiping-the-slate-clean-historic-convictions-for-gay-sex-must-be-expunged-9768
Gerber, Dr Paula (2014) Expunging convictions for gay sex: an old wrong is finally righted. Monash University. Retrieved from: http://monash.edu/news/show/expunging-convictions-for-gay-sex-an-old-wrong-is-finally-righted
Gillin, Lauren (16/10/2012) Calls to expunge gay sex convictions. ABC. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-10-16/calls-to-expunge-gay-sex-convictions/4315858
GLAAD (2014) #5DaysofEquality: Dec. 7 – 12, 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.5daysofequality.com/
Hay, Bob (2007) The Modern Gay Rights Movement. Bob Hay Online Resources. Retrieved from: http://bobhay.org/_downloads/_homo/NHH%2022%20Diversity%20in%20Diversity%20-%20The%20Modern%20Gay%20Rights%20Movement.pdf
Henderson, Anna (23/9/2014) Julia Gillard on gay marriage: Former PM says only a matter of time before same-sex unions legal in Australia. ABC News. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-22/gillard-says-same-sex-marriage-a-matter-of-time/5760460
HIGH COURT OF AUSTRALIA (2013) THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA v THE AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY[2013] HCA 55 Retrieved from: http://www.hcourt.gov.au/assets/publications/judgment-summaries/2013/hca55-2013-12-12.pdf
High Court of Australia. The Commonwealth v Australian Capital Territory [2013] HCA 55 (12 December 2013). AustLII. Retrieved from: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/2013/55.html
Hinton-Teoh, Ivan (2014) Media Release: Advocates Hope Freedom To Marry Bill Will Be “Turning Point”. Australian Marriage Equality. Retrieved from: http://www.australianmarriageequality.org/2014/11/25/medi-release-advocates-hope-freedom-to-marry-bill-will-be-turning-point/
Jahshan, Elias (23/10/2014) Advocates welcome final approval of NSW bill to extinguish historical gay sex convictions. Star Online. Retrieved from: http://www.starobserver.com.au/news/local-news/new-south-wales-news/advocates-welcome-final-approval-of-nsw-bill-to-extinguish-historical-gay-sex-convictions/129236
Jean, Peter & Cox, Lisa (22/10/2013) ACT passes same sex marriage bill. Canberra Times. Retrieved from: http://www.canberratimes.com.au/act-news/act-passes-same-sex-marriage-bill-20131022-2vy5o.html
Jennett, Greg (2004) Howard rules on gay marriages. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2004/s1117638.htm
Kirby, Justice Michael (2004) Family Law: The Special Contribution of Alastair Nicholson. Australian Journal of Family Law. Retrieved from: http://www.hcourt.gov.au/assets/publications/speeches/former-justices/kirbyj/kirbyj_may04.html
Lawrie, Alastair (2014) 10 Things I Hate About Marriage Inequality. WordPress. Retrieved from: http://alastairlawrie.net/10-things-i-hate-about-marriage-inequality/
M Neilsen (10/2/2012) Same-sex marriage, Background note, Parliamentary Library, Canberra. Retrieved from: http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/search/display/display.w3p;query=Id%3A%22library%2Fprspub%2F1409734%22
M Neilsen (2012) Marriage Amendment Bill 2012 [and] Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2012 [and] Marriage Equality Amendment Bill 2010, Bills digest, 158, 2011-12, Parliamentary Library, Canberra. Retrieved from: http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/search/display/display.w3p;query=Id%3A%22legislation%2Fbillsdgs%2F1720409%22
Marriage Legislation Amendment Bill 2004. Bills Digest No. 155 2003–04. Parliamentary Library. Retrieved from: http://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/bd/2003-04/04bd155.pdf
McKim, Nick (2013) ACT Becomes Rainbow Territory. Tasmanian Times. Retrieved from: http://tasmaniantimes.com/index.php?/pr-article/act-becomes-rainbow-territory/
Mukhopadhyay, Sounak ()’Gay Marriage Will Be Legal in Australia’: Former Prime Minister Julia Gillard. International Business Times. Retrieved from: http://au.ibtimes.com/articles/567215/20140923/gay-marriage-legal-australia-former-prime-minister.htm#.VI1bztKUeNs
My Big Gay Wedding (2014) Same-sex marriage: The Marriage Amendment Bill 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.mybiggaywedding.com.au/laws/australia/
National Centre Against Bullying (2014) The Hon. Alastair Nicholson. The Alannah and Madeline Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.ncab.org.au/alastairnicholson/
News Ltd (22/10/2013) ACT legalises same-sex marriage. Retrieved from: http://www.news.com.au/national/act-legalises-samesex-marriage/story-fncynjr2-1226744362166
Nicholson, Alastair (2004) THE LEGAL REGULATION OF MARRIAGE. University of Melbourne Law Students’ Society. Retrieved from: http://www.law.unimelb.edu.au/files/dmfile/29_2_7.pdf
Open Australia (2012) Marriage Amendment Bill (No. 2) 2012; Second Reading. Retrieved from: http://www.openaustralia.org.au/senate/?id=2012-09-17.3.2
Osborne, Paul (20/4/11) Howard laws create gay marriage loophole. Fairfax Media. Retrieved from: http://news.smh.com.au/breaking-news-national/howard-laws-create-gay-marriage-loophole-20110420-1dof2.html
Parliament of NSW (2013) Partial defence of provocation (Inquiry). Retrieved from: https://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/Prod/Parlment/committee.nsf/0/78B96853E8FC1F2DCA257A22001D0442
Patty, Anna & Alexander, Harriet (24/3/2013) Provocation defence should be severely limited, say MPs. Fairfax Media. Retrieved from: http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/provocation-defence-should-be-severely-limited-say-mps-20130423-2icu6.html
Pennicuik, Sue (2014) Sentencing Amendment (Historical Homosexual Convictions Expungement) Bill 2014. The Greens. Retrieved from: http://greens.org.au/sentencing-amendment-historical-homosexual-convictions-expungement-bill-2014
Perth Now (29/7/2009) PM Kevin Rudd says no to gay marriage. News Ltd. Retrieved from: http://www.perthnow.com.au/lifestyle/pm-kevin-rudd-says-no-to-gay-marriage/story-e6frg3pl-1225755944534?nk=b040ccedf86e7f9860af62a410261b96
Ryall, Jenni (7/12/2014) A global offering of love to 31 Australian couples whose marriages were voided. MashableAustralia. Retrieved from: http://mashable.com/2014/12/06/5-days-of-equality/
SMH (19/9/12) Gay marriage bill defeated. Fairfax News. Retrieved from: http://www.smh.com.au/national/gay-marriage-bill-defeated-20120919-266a8.html
Tomazin, Farrah (12/1/2014) Victoria to expunge criminal records of men convicted over gay sex. Fairfax Media. Retrieved from: http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/victoria-to-expunge-criminal-records-of-men-convicted-over-gay-sex-20140111-30ntq.html
Warden, Ian (22/10/2013) Joy as ACT passes same sex marriage laws. Canberra Times. Retrieved from: http://www.canberratimes.com.au/comment/joy-as-act-passes-same-sex-marriage-laws-20131022-2vyip.html
Wikinews (2006) Australian Senator to introduce bill for same-sex marriage. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Retrieved from: http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Australian_Senator_to_introduce_bill_for_same-sex_marriage
Wikipedia (2014) Alastair Nicholson. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alastair_Nicholson
Wikipedia (2014) Marriage Act 1961 (Australia). Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marriage_Act_1961_(Australia)
Wikipedia (2014) Marriage Equality (Same Sex) Act 2013. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marriage_Equality_(Same_Sex)_Act_2013
Wright, Tony (8/12/2013) Same-sex marriage was all the rage in the national capital. Canberra Times. Retrieved from: http://www.canberratimes.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/same-sex-couples-rush-into-marriage-before-high-court-decision-20131207-2yy6p.html
Cook, Rachel (2010) Closets Are For Clothes: A History of Queer Australia; Black Dog Books, Fitzroy.
Hughes, Robert (1986) The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia’s founding. Alfred A Knopf Inc, New York.
Hull, Kathleen (2006) Same-Sex Marriage: The Cultural Politics of Love & Law. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Irving, Terry & Cahill, Rowan (2010) Radical Sydney: Places, Portraits and Unruly Episodes; UNSW Press, Sydney.
Johnston, C & Van Reyk, Paul; Ed. (2001) Queer City: Gay and Lesbian Politics in Sydney. Pluto Press Australia Ltd, Annandale.
Robinson, Shirleene (2008) Homophobia: An Australian History. The Federation Press, Sydney.
Smith, Babette (2008) Australia’s Birthstain: The Startling Legacy of the Convict Era. Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest.